First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars

First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars
First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars

First Black Holes May Have Formed Without Stars


The universe is full of mysteries, and black holes are among the most enigmatic objects. Traditionally, black holes form after a massive star explodes. However, recent observations suggest that some of the first black holes may have formed without the help of stars. This discovery could change our understanding of the universe’s history and the formation of its most massive objects.

Astrophysicist Priyamvada Natarajan’s Theory

Astrophysicist Priyamvada Natarajan from Yale University proposed a groundbreaking theory in 2006. She suggested that black holes could form directly from collapsing gas clouds, bypassing the star formation stage. This theory, known as the “direct-collapse” model, faced skepticism but is now gaining support from recent observations.

First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars
First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars

Supporting Observations

Discovery in Galaxy UHZ1

A recent joint observation by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory revealed a distant black hole in the galaxy UHZ1. This black hole, observed in both x-ray and infrared light, matches Natarajan’s predictions, providing strong evidence for her theory.

Gravitational Lensing in Abell 2744

A significant breakthrough came from observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. This cluster, rich in dark matter, acted as a gravitational lens, magnifying distant galaxies behind it. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and JWST captured images of these galaxies, revealing a black hole that fits the direct-collapse model perfectly.

Implications for Cosmic History

Early Universe Black Holes

The discovery of these first black holes, which formed without stars, changes our understanding of the universe’s first billion years. Traditionally, black holes grow from stellar remnants, but these observations suggest a more rapid formation process.

First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars
First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars

The Role of Direct-Collapse Black Holes

If direct-collapse black holes were common in the early universe, they could explain the existence of supermassive black holes when the universe was only a few billion years old. These black holes would start much larger and grow quickly, merging with galaxies and other black holes.

Detailed Breakdown of the Findings

Data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and JWST

  • X-ray Observations: Provided by Chandra, showing the extremely bright x-ray signatures of black holes.
  • Infrared Data: Captured by JWST, revealing the structure and properties of distant galaxies.

Key Observations

  • Galaxy UHZ1: Contains the most distant black hole detected in x-rays.
  • Abell 2744: The gravitational lensing effect revealed a black hole that supports the direct-collapse model.

Tables and Figures

ObservationTelescopeData TypeFindings
Galaxy UHZ1Chandra X-ray ObservatoryX-rayMost distant black hole detected
Galaxy UHZ1James Webb Space TelescopeInfraredDetailed galaxy structure
Abell 2744Combined TelescopesX-ray and InfraredEvidence of direct-collapse black hole
First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars
First Black Holes: Formed Without Stars

Quotes from Experts

  • Raffaella Schneider, Sapienza University of Rome: “It’s definitely a very strong case in favor of these heavy black hole seeds.”
  • Akos Bogdan, Astrophysicist: “Are you sitting down? I think we found something.”

Key Takeaways

  • Direct-collapse black holes: A new model for black hole formation that skips the star-formation stage.
  • Early universe: These findings help explain the rapid appearance of supermassive black holes.
  • Astrophysical implications: Supports the idea that black holes played a crucial role in the early universe.


What is a direct-collapse black hole?

A direct-collapse black hole forms from collapsing gas clouds without first forming a star.

Why is this discovery significant?

It provides a new understanding of how supermassive black holes could form quickly in the early universe.

How does gravitational lensing help in observing distant objects?

Gravitational lensing magnifies and distorts the light from distant objects, making them easier to observe with telescopes.

What are the next steps for researchers?

Researchers aim to find more evidence of direct-collapse black holes and explore other possible formation pathways.


The discovery that some of the first black holes may have formed without stars is a significant breakthrough in astrophysics. This evidence supports Priyamvada Natarajan’s direct-collapse model and provides new insights into the universe’s early history. As researchers continue to explore these mysterious objects, we may uncover even more about the nature of the cosmos.

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